Signal fading: Uplink and downlink transmissions can experience various forms of fading as signals pass through the troposphere and ionosphere. This is sometimes called multipath fade. Basically the signal from the transmitter to the receiver can bounce off of various objects or bend due to variations in refractive index and can combine destructively at the antenna. The net received signal experiences time-varying fading. If s(t) is the transmitted signal, then the received signal r(t) can be represented by the formula;
The model parameters are usually determined by actual field experiments. Usually, the amplitudes are modeled as a Rayleigh distribution with some fade dynamics. Rain attenuation does not exhibit Rayleigh fading but is an important consideration at frequencies above C band. Simulation tools allow us to consider the combined effect of different forms of fading and evaluate mitigation strategies.
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