What Is Economics
Macro and Microeconomics
Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)
Specialization and Comparative Advantage
Demand and Supply
The Law of Demand
The Law of Supply
Time and Supply
Supply and Demand Relationship
F. Shifts vs. Movement
The availability of substitutes
Income available to spend on the good
Income Elasticity of Demand
Disequilibrium occurs whenever the price or quantity is not equal to P* or Q*.
1. Excess Supply
If price is set too high, excess supply will be created within the economy, and there will be allocative inefficiency.
2. At price P1 the quantity of goods that the producers wish to supply is
indicated by Q2. At P1, however, the quantity that the consumers want to consume is at Q1, a quantity much less than Q2. Because Q2 is greater
than Q1, too much is being produced and too little is being consumed. The suppliers are trying to produce more goods, which they hope to sell in
hope of increasing profits, but those consuming the goods will purchase less because the price is too high, making the product less attractive.
3. Excess Demand
Excess demand is created when price is set below the equilibrium price. Because the price is so low, too many consumers want the good while producers are not making enough of it.
In this situation, at price P1, the quantity of goods demanded by consumers at this price is Q2. Conversely, the quantity of goods that producers are willing to produce at this price is Q1. Thus, there are too few goods being produced to satisfy the wants (demand) of the consumers. However, as consumers have to compete with one other to buy the good at this price, the demand will push the price up, making suppliers want to supply more and bringing the price closer to its equilibrium.
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