89c51 tutorial 89c51 Programming the flash

Feature and Descriptions of 89c51
89C51-pin diagram
89c51-block diagram
89c51-Pin Description
89c51-Oscillator Characteristics
89c51-Power Down Mode 
89c51-Programming the Flash

89c51-Programming Interface





Programming the Flash


The AT89C51 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the erased state (that is, contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The programming interface accepts either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage (VCC) program enable signal. The low voltage programming mode provides a convenient way to program the AT89C51 inside the userís system, while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional third party Flash or EPROM programmers. The AT89C51 is shipped with either the high-voltage or low-voltage programming mode enabled. The respective top-side marking and device signature codes are listed in the following table.


The AT89C51 code memory array is programmed byte by byte in either programming mode. To program any non-blank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory, the entire memory must be erased using the Chip Erase Mode.

Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89C51, the address, data and control signals should be set up according to the Flash 

programming mode table and Figures 3 and 4. To program the AT89C51, take the following steps.


1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines.

2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines.

3. Activate the correct combination of control signals.

4. Raise EA/VPP to 12 V for the high-voltage programming mode.

5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock    bits. The byte-write cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 1.5 ms. Repeat steps 1 through 5, changing the address and data for the entire

array or until the end of the object file is reached. Data Polling: The AT89C51 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. During a

write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written datum on PO.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data are valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated.



The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. P3.4 is  pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.4 is pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY.


Program Verify:

If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the programmed code data can be read back via the address and data lines for verification. The lock bits cannot be verified directly. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled.


Chip Erase:

The entire Flash array is erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding ALE/PROG low for 10 ms. The code array is written with all ď1"s. The chip erase operation must be executed before the code memory can be re-programmed.


Reading the Signature Bytes:

The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 030H, 031H, and 032H, except that P3.6 and P3.7 must be pulled to a logic low. The values returned are as follows.

(030H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel

(031H) = 51H indicates 89C51

(032H) = FFH indicates 12 V programming

(032H) = 05H indicates 5 V programming






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