**Cryptography**

**Contents**

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ENCRYPTION & DECRYPTION__

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cryptography referred almost
exclusively to *encryption*, the process of converting ordinary information
(plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (ie,
*ciphertext*). Decryption is the reverse, moving from unintelligible
ciphertext to plaintext. A *cipher* (or *cypher*) is a pair of
algorithms which perform this encryption and the reversing decryption.

The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and, in each instance, by a key known only to the communicants,occurred as follows:

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