Bandwidth and rise time

CMOS Introduction
CMOS Amplifier
Amplifier characteristics
Output dynamic range
Bandwidth and rise time
Settling time and aberrations
Slew rate
Electronic amplifiers
Two-Stage Amplifier
Design  Of  OP-AMP
Design Of Two Stage OP-AMP

The bandwidth (BW) of an amplifier is usually defined as the difference between the lower and upper half power points. This is therefore also known as the -3 dB BW. Bandwidths for other response tolerances are sometimes quoted (-1 dB, -6 dB etc.).

A full-range audio amplifier will be essentially flat between twenty hertz to about twenty kilohertz (the range of normal human hearing.) In minimalist amplifier design, the amp's usable frequency response needs to extend considerably beyond this (one or more octaves either side) and typically a good minimalist amplifier will have -3 dB points < 10 and > 65 kHz. Professional touring amplifiers often have input and/or output filtering to sharply limit frequency response beyond 20-20 kHz; too much of the amplifier's potential output power would otherwise be wasted on infrasonic and ultrasonic frequencies, and the danger of AM radio interference would increase. Modern switching amplifiers need steep low pass filtering at the output to get rid of high frequency switching noise and harmonics.

The rise time of an amplifier is the time taken for the output to change from 10% to 90% of its final level when driven by a step input.

Many amplifiers are ultimately slew rate limited (typically by the impedance of a drive current having to overcome capacitive effects at some point in the circuit), which may limit the full power bandwidth to frequencies well below the amplifiers frequency response when dealing with small signals.











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